Recently the federal government has sought to limit telework for federal employees. However, the ADA still requires agencies to provide telework, even 100% telework, to disabled employees who need it. Many Managers often wrongly assume that working from home is not really working. Managers often use spurious excuses to prevent employees from using telework. The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) requires federal agencies to offer disabled employees telework if they need it. Two recent cases show that federal agencies who try to prevent disabled workers from teleworking face serious sanctions for failing to provide reasonable accommodations.
100% Telework can be required under the ADA
In 2015, the EEOC required the Department of Housing and Urban Development to compensate an employee who requested telework because of his Ankylosing Spondylitis. This condition made it painful for the employee to drive long distances to and from work. He therefore requested to work 100% telework. HUD argued that the functions of the position required the employee to be on the road to check in on troubled housing locations and to come into the office for meetings with colleagues. The EEOC rejected these arguments, noting that the evidence contradicted that these were serious concerns justifying denying telework. Mail could be scanned and emailed to the employee and meetings could be attended effectively by phone. Therefore, the agency violated the ADA by not providing 100% telework. See Lavern B. v. Castro, EEOC Appeal No. 0720130029 (Feb. 12, 2015).
Telework can be combined with a lateral move to meet ADA requirements
In another recent case, the EEOC required the Department of the Interior to compensate an employee because it had not considered a teleworking accommodation in conjunction with offering him a different position. The employee in this case had a similar disability preventing him from driving long distances. Before litigation, the agency offered the employee two potential alternative worksites. Because driving to these worksites would violate his medical restrictions, the employee declined the moves. The agency then terminated the employee. The EEOC found that if the agency had continued to work with the employee to find an accommodation, as it was required to do, the agency could have offered the employee the two positions and telework 100% of the time. This would have accommodated his needs and met the agency’s obligations. The EEOC stated:
In allowing an employee to telework[,] an employer “may need to reassign some minor job duties or marginal functions . . . if they cannot be performed outside of the workplace.” . . . [A]n employer should not, however, deny a request to telework as a reasonable accommodation solely because a job involves some contact and coordination with other employees.  Frequently, meetings can be conducted effectively by telephone and information can be exchanged through e-mail. Harvey G. v. Jewell, EEOC Appeal No. 0120150844 (Feb. 4, 2016).
Federal agencies should be model employers in providing accommodations, including telework
The EEOC has reminded agencies that federal agencies are not just any employer—they are to serve as models for the rest of the American workforce. Telework is becoming a reality for many federal agencies, despite recent attempts to limit federal employees from working from home. Many federal agencies assume, often without evidence, that working from home is not really working. But even if the agencies severely limit teleworking, the ADA still requires agencies to provide teleworking as an accommodation for disabled employees.
If you feel that you have been denied a reasonable accommodation or have otherwise been discriminated against, contact a lawyer experienced in handling EEO matters for federal employees. You have a limited time to contact and EEO counselor.